TC in this situation creates particular rules and standards set out very clearly. In the TC a person must learn clearly distinguish between “yes” or “no” to separate “black” and “white”, to form new plans, and strictly adhere to them. The key words “House” and “Family” deliberately are cultivated in some of the TC. During the passage of rehabilitation each member goes through all the stages and phases, and is presented in a variety of social roles, trying to force in the various fields of human activity. There are also functions of the rotation speed and the hierarchy. Therapeutic communities can be viewed from two sides.
On one hand it is a complex system, which reproduces society, a mini-model of the social structure. On the other hand, the TCs are very simple, there are no half-tones, all spelled out clearly and in details. The difference of the TCs from of social groups is tightly regulated by rules and regulations that must be observed by every member of the TC, including the staff. TC model includes nine required elements. These elements are based on social learning theory, which applies the community to contribute the behavioral and ideological changes. Elements: the active participation, feedback of members of the TC, role modeling, collective ways to guide individual change, shared norms and values, structured and systematic, open communications , relationships of the personality and group, unique terminology.
Literally rehabilitation – a “return to skills.” In the TC could not be better implemented the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual approach. Rehabilitation activities are divided into four major fields of human activity:
The biological aspect – it is a group activity, primarily associated with the work on addiction, recovery of somatic status, sports events.
The psychological aspect of it – individual counseling and psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, groups feelings, of emotions.
The social aspect is – working with the family, self, self, community meetings, education, employment, vocational training, social and acceptable forms of recreation, postreabilitatsionnaya support.
The spiritual aspect – spiritual time, culture, norms and values, education, training and ethics. Speaking of efficiency, it is worth nothing the positive correlation between the amount of time spent in the program, and the results of rehabilitation. In the long-term success rate of the TC program is evaluated on the following factors: the absence of surfactant abstinence, absence of illegal acts , having a permanent place of work or study, maintaining relationships with family . According to Therapeutic Communities ACFR after 2 years of treatment, these factors account for 90% for program graduates, 50% for participants who dropped out after the rehabilitation program more than 1 year, 25% for participants who dropped out of the program for 1 year.
The effectiveness of rehabilitation is estimated by the phase of testing, and monitoring data. Evaluation is systematic. Abstention from the surfactant is an important but not the only indicator of rehabilitation. The main indicator – the return to society and the resumption of normal life. Thus, estimated the quality of life. Rehabilitation should be completed mastering basic life skills, domestic skills, the ability to regularly study and work.
Evaluate the effectiveness of TC as a model of rehabilitation for adolescents who abuse surfactants show a clear advantage in the latter compared to other methods. This is due to several reasons. The length of time gives several advantages TC program. The unique conditions – the presence of time, as well as organized, structured therapeutic environment created in the TC – provide an invaluable opportunity to use almost all the effective techniques that are available in rehabilitation. This is particularly important considering that in each case should be taken in account all human needs. No other program is able to return a person to a successful life in society. Thus, the TC covers the full range of rehabilitation services for adolescents and young people who abuse substances.